SDM Nuklir

Collaborating Centre – A recognition from IAEA

BATAN was appointed by the IAEA as an IAEA Collaborating Centre

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Tomo Graphy

Safety and Security

Working with radioactive material requires a high safety and security culture. BATAN has implemented the nuclear safety and security culture accordance with national and international regulations.

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Reaktor Triga

Working with radioactive material demands a high work safety culture. BATAN conducts this in accordance to the national as well as international regulations.

The human factor as well as the security culture is important factors in assuring the security in facilities, infrastructure and transportation of nuclear materials. This is what is always applied in BATAN since its establishment 55 years ago by following the international regulations and standards.

Nuclear technology is an important means in supporting the national development program in Indonesian, especially in the field of health, food and agriculture, management of water resources, and environmental protection.

On the other hand, the issue of nuclear security is still an important issue for the national as well as the international world. This is in consideration of the risks if nuclear material falls into the wrong hands and used irresponsibly. Because of this, serious steps are needed in protecting facilities as well as nuclear materials.

The international atomic energy agency (IAEA) and the world nuclear experts alone have made a concept of nuclear security and the implementing guidelines for IAEA member states. The nuclear security concept was issued by IAEA in the year 2008 in the Nuclear security series No.7.

The importance of this culture was also discussed in two meetings of nuclear security issues in the year 2010 and 2012. As a step in anticipation towards these threats, including the possibility of terrorism, BATAN has invited missions from IAEA-IPPAS to evaluate the nuclear security system in the nuclear research reactor facility in 2001 and then was continued by the next IPPAS mission in 2007.

In connection with the nuclear security in the international world, since 1970 Indonesia alone has signed the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear weapons Treaty (NPT) and ratified it in the year 1975. Then Indonesia followed the Additional Protocol in the year 1999 therefore becoming the first country in Southeast Asia which is bound by a verification mechanism that is more tight. Indonesia is also a member of the Southeast Asia Nuclear weapon Free Zone which is effective since 1997. Another agreement which was signed is the Comprehensive Nuclear Testing Ban Treaty (CTBT) in 1996 and ratified in February 2012.

"Nuclear issues become important in the world. BATAN is in cooperation with IAEA and other agencies in evaluating the nuclear security system in the reactor area."

"BATAN currently is operating three research reactors with a good security record."

Indonesia is one of the countries that signed the Joint Convention regarding security management of remaining Nuclear Fuel and security management in the safety of radioactive Waste, Convention of Nuclear Security and Convention of Physical protection towards Nuclear Materials.

In the month of July 2012, Indonesia has installed for the first time a radiation monitoring monitor in the seaport of Belawan, Medan. This is the result of the contribution of the international atomic energy agency (IAEA), for the monitor is used to detect any nuclear or radioactive material which enters the seaport.

BATAN currently operates and maintains security of the three research reactors in three different locations, which are in the Bandung nuclear complex with the TRIGA mark II reactor with a capacity of 2MW, the Yogyakarta nuclear complex with the TRIGA mark II Kartini reactor wit a capacity of 100 KW as well as Serpong nuclear complex in Tangerang with the GA Siwabessy Multi Purpose Reactor with a capacity of 30 MW.

Security in the research reactor facility as well as the BATAN offices is conducted tightly. Visitors must first send an official visitation request and then submitting their identity cards/papers, before entering the nuclear complex, visitors must fill in the guest book then taken their photograph as well as given a visitor card/tag which must always be worn.

"BATAN has applied a nuclear security culture in all levels based on international references."

Security in the reactor uses an in depth safety system to minimize any damage impacts to humans and the surrounding environment.

BATAN also cares towards the security and safety in utilizing radiation in the field of health which greatly contributes towards radiation exposure received by humans. About 15% of the radiation source received currently by humans is obtained from the activity in utilization of radiation in the field of health which covers radio-diagnostics, radio-therapy and nuclear medicine.

Because of this, BATAN established a Medical Physical Laboratory which tests the accuracy of medical equipment of the radiation user, the dose received by patients etc. This is in accordance to Government Regulation No 33 year 2007 regarding ionizing radiation safety and security of radioactive sources as well as the recommendation of BS115.

The regulation states that the user of the radiation source in the field of health shall be obliged to conduct the protection system which covers justification in utilization of nuclear energy, dose limitation, optimization of radiation protection and safety.

Nuclear security culture
The next step in security of nuclear facilities is to introduce and increase the nuclear security culture. IAEA in cooperation with international expert groups are developing and implementing the Self-Assessment methodology.

In management of the research area in Serpong and others, BATAN among others have targeted the security system which is in effect, could be a role model in the Southeast Asia area.

Conducted fully by Indonesian experts, the BATAN reactors alone have functioned for tens of years safely without any incidents. The processes in the nuclear facilities have the objective, in making information references regarding the status of the nuclear security culture as well as developing steps for the sake of fulfilling any weaknesses still present.

BATAN has applied the nuclear security culture in all levels based on international references which is the IAEA NSS No 7 Nuclear Security Culture.

This reference was released in 2008 as a guideline for IAEA members in increasing the nuclear security culture. Since 2010, BATAN has a commitment to the importance of nuclear security culture in all levels. Because of this one year later BATAN conducted a regional seminar regarding this topic.

In the year 2012, BATAN in cooperation with the Center for International Trade and Security (CITS) University of Georgia United States of America as well as the IAEA-Office of Nuclear Security in

"BATAN is ready if there is a nuclear emergency. The available personnel and infrastructure will immediately go quickly to the field."

"BATAN will share experiences of the nuclear security culture in international forums."

Implementation of a research model project in a nuclear security culture. The objective of the project is to apply a Self-Assessment methodology in the research reactor facilities of BATAN. The results that are desired to be achieved is a clear illustration regarding the influence of the human factor in the security factor in the research reactor.

The Self-Assessment Project was conducted in the three research reactors by surveying 635 staff members and contractors in December 2012 – January 2013, the results then were finally summarized and discussed in February – March 2013 as well as presented in the IAEA technical meeting. The agenda of BATAN then would be to revise a number of regulations in the field of security management based on the inputs from the Self-Assessment project. Continued cooperation in nuclear security culture will be developed with IAEA.

BATAN also plans to share experiences in self-assessment of nuclear security in international forums. In cooperation with other government institutions, BATAN also considers to make an agency in the field of nuclear security culture and Self-Assessment. The function of this agency is as a Center of Excellence in the expertise segment and training of nuclear security culture in Southeast Asia.

" BATAN will share experiences of the nuclear security culture in international forums."

Nuclear Emergency

BATAN also is ready in connection with nuclear emergencies. A number of infrastructures have been prepared therefore the personnel of BATAN could immediately rush to the field within five minutes if needed. Routine training for nuclear emergencies have been conducted since 2004 with a large training event held once a year. An environmental survey vehicle is available or Carborne monitoring to find out which regions are radioactive contaminated and in support of the implementation of mitigation of nuclear accidents. This system is capable to measure the level of radiation and environmental radioactivity which is integrated and could send data to the control station in real time. Besides that, an air monitoring system is developed with a permanently installed monitoring station. The design of the vehicle is such that detector circuit and other sensors as well as the position of supporting equipment like work desk, CCTV camera up to the railings of the Whole Body Counter could work well.

"Supervision of the research reactor operation is conducted tightly in accordance to the international nuclear agency standard."

In June 2013, BATAN together with the Disaster Mitigation National Agency (BNPB) and the Provincial Government of Banten as well as the City/Regency Governments surrounding the Serpong research reactor have conducted a training of readiness in facing nuclear emergencies. The objective is for all parties to be ready if a nuclear accident occurs, the mitigation would be easier and quicker as well as the number of victims could be minimized.

The training involved various response teams, like the medical team, nuclear security team, the radiation protection team, the fire brigade team, also the team from the police force and the Indonesian Army. The accident scenario where the fuel elements of the reactor have melted then radioactive gas is released into the air. The research reactor of BATAN is completed with a containment and ventilation system to trap the gas until it decays within eight hours. The system is very safe and since the establishment of the reactor itself there have never been any accidents. Therefore the training of readiness has been conducted to fulfill the safety procedures in accordance to the international rules and not to show that the nuclear research reactor is not safe.

BATAN also took part in the National Field Rehearsal of 2013 in Mitigation of Radioactive Source Accident which was held in Bandung on 5th September 2013. This activity was participated by a number of relevant institutions with the objective to test the capability of emergency response due to a transportation accident which involves radioactive sources. The scenario used in this training is a traffic accident between the radioactive nuclear material transporting vehicle with a sand transporting truck.

"The presence of a Radiation Protection Worker is for ensuring work security in the reactor environment."

Therefore causing victims and the radioactive material is scattered on the road. The emergency response readiness training is also mandated in Government Regulation No 54 year 2012 regarding safety and security of Nuclear installation which obliges the license holder to conduct training and rehearsal of nuclear emergency.

In this activity BATAN among others has dispatched the operational vehicles for the Carborne Monitoring System which functions to measure the environmental radiation and radioactivity level in an integrated method and could send data to the control station in real time.

Environmental Monitoring

In BATAN there is also a management in radiation safety and personnel as well as environmental monitoring. The duty officer shall monitor the radiation exposure within and outside the laboratory, monitoring radiation in the environment by taking samples of water, earth, dust and air. The samples are taken within a 5 kilometer distance from the reactor.

For monitoring personnel, a personal monitoring system is used among others by wearing a TL dosimeter badge which is examined every three months. Every personnel of BATAN who works with irradiation possess two badges where every badge later must be evaluated and replaced. The objective is that the personnel are not exposed exceeding the limit.

BATAN also conducts health examination every once a year and is compulsory for every personnel especially radiation workers who are wearing the TLD badge. Besides that in the room which uses radioactive material there is a whole body counter which functions to check the amount of radiation exposure.

BATAN alone possesses a cytogenic laboratory which analyzes chromosome aberration due to ionizing radiation. Chromosome aberration could be used to predict the trend of cancer of the individual. Then there is a bioassay service to measure radiation in the human body through examination of feces and urine.

"Emergency response readiness training is connected to the safety and security of nuclear installations."

Every laboratory in BATAN is also monitored once a month. The officer in the field of safety which is called radiation protection officer participates in activities using large radiation. The water in the irradiator pool is also sampled once a month. The water is purified again to avoid rust and contaminants.

The program in monitoring the environment in the Serpong nuclear area also is conducted since the GA Siwabessy reactor is operated. The results of monitoring obtained based on the evaluation shows that the dose rate and accumulative in the air does not show any changes or increasing trend.

The radio-nuclides of the results of fission have not been observed nor activation in components and there is no increase in received dose by the people who are around the Serpong nuclear area. The officers of BATAN also conduct ocean radioecology which is monitoring of the sea/ocean environment. The purpose is to find out if the radioactive contamination from foreign accidents does not enter the waters of Indonesia.

Security in Waste Processing

In the field of safety in BATAN there is also an activity in management of radioactive waste and dangerous materials (B3) which manages wastes from all of Indonesia and the results of handling are reported to IAEA. Processing of radioactive waste in BATAN alone is conducted precisely and carefully, starting from the taking from the location until the final processing place.

In Indonesia, according to Article 22 paragraph2 Law No 10/1997, radioactive wastes based on their activity is classified into the type of low level radioactive waste (LTR), medium level (LTS) and high level (LTT). The creator of radioactive wastes are from BATAN activities, the industry, hospitals, and others, are obliged to separate and gather the wastes according to the type and level of activity. The radioactive waste then is sent to BATAN in Serpong for further processing.

The main purpose in processing wastes is to reduce the volume and conditioning of the wastes so that in the further handling, the radiation workers, the members of the public and environment are safe from radiation exposure and contamination. Those which have a dense factor of 50 times and processing capacity of 750 liters/hour, the solid wastes are put into a burning process by an incinerator unit which has a combustion capacity of 50 kg/hour. The ashes from the combustion process are then immobilized with cement in a drum container with a capacity of 100 liters. The compacted solid wastes/not burnt are processed with a compacting unit which has a pressing strength of 60 KN.

The processed wastes are stored in a temporary storage which has a capacity of 1,500 drum cells of 200 liters. The storage in the Serpong nuclear area has been operating for 30 years a small amount of wastes and still could store until 60 years in the future. For the future, discussion is being made for plans in development of a final repository for the wastes.

In BATAN, liquid waste is processed by an evaporator unit then there is a chemical based processing for low until medium activity corrosive liquid wastes. The optimum capacity of the chemical treatment unit is 0.5 m3/day with a stirrer batch reactor. The active sludge produced then is immobilized using cement in a 950 liter capacity concrete cylindrical container.

BATAN in management of LTR and LTS, has adopted the sound technology and which is commonly used in nuclear industrial countries. The processed wastes are stored in the temporary storage facility IS-1, therefore the wastes are safe and controlled as well as the possibility of spilled wastes or uncontrolled wastes could be avoided.

For management of high level radioactive wastes (LTT) and nuclear spent fuel (BBN), BATAN currently chooses the closed cycle. The BBN and LTT wastes from the fabrication test results of BBN currently are stored in the Interim Storage for Spent Fuel Elements (ISSFE) in Serpong. The capacity of ISSFE is capable to store spent BBN for the operation life of the GA Siwabessy reactor.

Meanwhile, the LTT and spent BBN which is produced from the operation of the Triga Mark II reactor in Bandung and the Kartini reactor in Yogyakarta is stored in the cooling pool of the reactor. In its operation, the GA Siwabessy reactor, the Triga Mark II reactor and the Kartini reactor, spent BBN or LTT are not going out of the nuclear area, all are stored safely.